The National Monument in Amsterdam was built in 1956 as a memorial to those killed and injured in World War II.
22 metres high it was designed by Dutch architect Jacobus Oud and unveiled on 4 May 1956. It replaced a temporary monument that had been erected in 1947 of 11 urns, each one containing soil from the Second World War’s execution grounds and war cemeteries throughout the Netherlands.
The monument’s sculptures are by John Radecker and his sons Han and Jan Willem Radecker. The reliefs on the front pillar, below, of chained male figures representing the suffering endured during the war are by the sculptor Paul Grégoire. The two male sculptures either side depict the Dutch Resistance. The woman and child above represents victory, peace and new life. As in the temporary monument the wall at the back contains soil from around the Netherlands and from the Dutch East Indies (present day Indonesia).